作者:邓成开 来源:原创 时间:2019-09-28 阅读:5 次

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????如何解决民营企业的融资困难?自2018年下半年以来,由于种种原因,尤其是金融去杠杆化过程中的政策偏差,银行向相当多的民营企业发放了坏账、抽取贷款和紧缩贷款,再加上证券市场的大幅度调整,出现了大量的民营上市。公司面临着股权质押清算的风险,民营经济的发展遇到了前所未有的困难,严重影响了国民经济的发展。2018年11月1日,习近平总书记主持召开民营企业研讨会,发表重要讲话,重申中央政府“坚定不移地鼓励和支持发展非公有制经济的指导方针和政策”,并指出“民营企业和民营企业家”是我们自己的人。中国的民营经济只能增长而不能削弱,不仅不能“走出去”,而且要走向更广阔的阶段。习金平同志特别指出“民营企业,特别是中小企业,应优先解决融资困难甚至融资困难的问题”,“对于有股权质押清仓风险的民营企业,应优先考虑有关各方和地方政府。西金平同志的讲话,对私营企业家来说,是一个巨大的鼓舞,增强了他们的信心。国务院各部门党委、政府召开了各级研讨会,并很快出台了有关政策和措施。国务院各部门还就解决民营企业融资难问题发表了一系列意见,甚至提出了“125”银行贷款比例目标等。习近平同志讲话一个月多后,民营企业融资难和融资贵的问题如何解决?如何解决一些企业资金链紧张甚至断裂的问题?民营经济的生存和发展环境有改善吗?这是社会各界都十分关注的问题。根据深圳的实际情况,民营企业过去一个月的融资环境和资金链的现状大致可以分为以下四种情况:(1)上市公司股权质押清算的风险在一定程度上得到了控制;2018年上半年,深圳300多家上市公司中,超过半数存在股权质押清算风险,部分上市公司单独上市。公司认捐的股票已经清算。根据中央政府的要求和深圳的实际情况,深圳主要采取两种方式缓解上市公司股权质押风险。一是市政府通过国有资本平台对上市公司注资,取代民营上市公司的质押股,提高股权质押率,从而缓解股权质押清算的风险;二是政府直接通过国有企业。收购部分民营企业上市公司股份,可以为民营企业注入资本,提高上市公司声誉,缓解市场恐慌,稳定社会预期,增强投资者信心,使上市公司股价从恐慌抛售后的低点合理回升,以及减轻部分股权质押的风险。(2)大多数非上市民营企业的融资困境仍然不容乐观,最近中央政府和各部委纷纷发表了大量支持民营企业融资的出版物。银保监察委员会主席郭树清提出,民营企业贷款应实现“十二五”目标。银行还表示,应该支持民营企业的发展,并实施相关的贷款政策。但是,在加强各级银行风险控制的情况下,实践中对民营企业增贷款的政策和要求没有得到落实,存在着“雷声雷鸣,雨点小”的现象。今年上半年以来,民营企业还贷中断、贷款抽取、贷款紧缩等问题一直没有得到妥善解决。一些银行仍在推迟向私营企业提供技术和专业方面的贷款。虽然一些大型企业已经与银行签订了所谓的“框架协议”和信用额度,但框架协议的实施与银行贷款的支付之间仍然存在差距。(3)中小民营企业仍处于困境。由于中小企业数量众多,其经营不容易,而且没有土地、房地产等质押,银行贷款的风险较高。一个多月来,中央政府解决民营企业融资难和融资昂贵的要求一直没有扩大到银行体系中的中小型民营企业的贷款业务。因此,大量的中小民营企业仍然处于资金短缺的同样境地,其中一些由于资金链的断裂而无法支撑。(四)民间融资渠道尚未恢复。长期以来,银行等金融机构对民间企业,特别是中小企业的贷款更加谨慎,导致大量民营企业不得不通过小额信贷公司和其他民间融资渠道融资。应该说,民间融资是中小民营企业的主要资金来源,对促进经济发展、优化资金配置具有积极作用。但今年以来,由于经济低迷和资金短缺,大量P2P公司爆发式增长,小额贷款公司的风险加大,使得民间融资渠道尚未恢复。事实上,深圳的小额贷款公司大多处于停业和半停业状态。综上所述,习近平同志长达一个多月的重要讲话,虽然一些民营上市公司的股权质押清算风险已初步得到控制,但整个民营经济融资困难、融资昂贵,甚至无力融资,尚未完全解决。今年,大量民营企业面临着资金链紧缩甚至断裂的局面。原因有很多。虽然由于过度扩张或自我管理不善,少数民营企业出现坏账、呆账、呆账,但大多数民营企业仍能正常经营。企业仍然盈利或微利。这些企业的财务困难不是由于银行的缺席。杠杆率的偏差,或者由于外部因素如股市的大规模调整造成的。因此,当前正常的民营企业应给予紧急措施、必要的财政援助,尽快恢复正常贷款,妥善解决上半年银行贷款崩溃、贷款撤回、贷款压力等遗留问题。这仍然是当前民营经济乃至整个国民经济发展的当务之急。在元旦和春节期间,企业资金的流动性通常是最紧张的时期。我们希望金融体系和地方政府给予高度重视。作为当前特殊阶段和特殊形势下的一项特殊措施,我们要尽快解决民营企业的财务困难,防止新春期间中小民营企业倒闭破产。为解决民营企业资金短缺问题,各部门不仅要举办研讨会、高喊口号、发布文件,还要努力实施解决民营企业融资难和融资难的政策。2。深化国有企业改革是解决民营企业融资难的根本出路。为什么高负债率的国有企业,甚至“僵尸企业”在杠杆化解脱的过程中,都未能突破贷款、发放贷款和新闻贷款?最初,中央政府专门要求降低国有企业的债务率。为什么他们中的大多数落入了私营企业?原因有很多。例如,刘和同志说,“一些机构的一些业务人员认为借贷给私营企业有政治风险,他们宁愿不做也不愿犯政治错误”,还有银行体制等造成的不作为。但我认为,民营企业融资难这一老问题一直没有很好地解决,而且复发不完全是由于银行自身对这一问题的认识,更不用说一个业务和技术问题,根本原因应该是体制和机制造成的。近年来,随着银行等金融机构的改革,风险意识不断增强,风险控制体系不断完善。从银行自身的利益来看,向民营企业贷款的风险要大得多。几乎不存在向国有企业贷款的风险。资金基本上是安全的。民营企业贷款风险高,国有企业贷款风险低或没有的原因?民营企业是否缺乏活力、效率和信誉?国有企业是否有效、有活力、信誉良好?当然不完全是。民营经济占国内生产总值的60%,而银行对民营企业的贷款仅占30%。这说明民营企业的资本利用效率远高于国有企业。为什么银行系统会发生如此大规模的资金错配?我认为有三个深层次的原因:第一,国有企业比私营企业具有无可比拟的优势。长期以来,政府将实施国有企业和民营企业的显性或隐性差别化政策。国有企业在获取土地、矿产权、特许经营权、政府项目、银行贷款、资本市场融资和市场准入等自然资源方面处于有利地位。特别是近年来,在加强和扩大国有企业的指导思想下,国有企业享受各级政府的优惠政策和特殊扶持,自身实力不断加强,特别是在土地、财产等银行贷款的抵押品方面。对民营企业具有无可比拟的优势。其次,国有资产管理体制已成为防范国有企业贷款风险的重要屏障。当国有企业经营困难或发生资本风险时,中央到地方各级国有资产管理体制已成为消化银行贷款风险的重要障碍。各级国有资产委托机构贷款风险高,资金运行困难,甚至需要关闭破产企业,或者直接投资增资,或者通过内部资金调度制度弥补,或者通过其他上级企业对国有资产内部制度进行重组。国有企业可以生存,从而保证银行的贷款风险,形成国有企业。只能前进而不能退却的机制。在各级国有资产管理体制的重要障碍下,就银行自身利益而言,国有企业贷款是有保障的。在这种情况下,银行怎么能不向国有企业贷款?如何降低国有企业的杠杆率?第三,国有企业得到政府的最终认可,政府实际上已成为国有企业贷款的最终支付者。原来,无论什么所有制,企业的生死都是一个经济结构和产业结构的动态优化和调整的过程。但是,作为国有企业的投资者,政府不仅以国有企业作为行政手段进行资源配置的平台和载体,而且对国有企业负有责任。特别是出于维护社会稳定等考虑,一般不让国有企业破产。任何地方政府都不愿意让国有企业在任期内倒闭破产。因此,对于处于困境中的国有企业,他们不断地运用经济和行政手段进行输血和抢救,一些“僵尸企业”也因此而走到了尽头。以政府为背书人和最终付款人,银行对国有企业的贷款基本上是无风险的。当然,他们愿意向国有企业投入更多的贷款资源。由于上述原因,国有企业在获得银行贷款、银行资源和银行风险评估方面与民营企业处于不平等的地位。国有企业与民营企业贷款风险的差异,在经营管理、内部效率、经济效益等方面不能反映企业的实际情况。对于银行来说,为了规避自身风险,追求自身利益,在正常的贷款业务中,特别是在金融体系去杠杆化和风险防范中,它们自然会切断贷款,向民营企业发放贷款和压力贷款,并向国有企业分配大量的金融资源。因此,为了解决民营企业融资难和成本高的问题,从解决当前民营企业特殊困境的角度出发,银行有必要根据中央政府的要求,采取特殊的方式帮助民营企业克服困难。企业。但是,从长远来看,从治理的角度看,要真正解决民营企业的融资问题,支持民营企业的发展和壮大,必须进一步深化国有企业改革,真正从长远上解决民营经济发展中的融资问题。制度、制度、机制三方面。首先,要确保国有企业和民营企业在市场上的平等竞争地位,建立公平的竞争市场环境。改革开放以来,党和国家在发展民营企业的理论和政策上都取得了很大的进步。私营经济从过去对社会主义经济的补充发展到现在,已经成为社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,是社会主义经济发展的重要基础。近年来,中央政府出台了一些支持民营企业发展的意见和法规,但在实施过程中没有得到充分实施,公平竞争的市场环境也没有完全建立。因此,要进一步打破“国有”与“私有”的所有制差距,坚定不移地发展私营经济,激发其经济活力和创造力,真正实现生产要素在各类所有制经济中依法平等使用,公平参与市场竞争。同时,受到法律的平等保护,使私营经济能够成为国民经济健康持续发展的良好市场经济体制。良好运行的基础。第二,加快国有经济的布局和结构调整,形成国有企业进退维生的动态调整机制。近年来,国有企业依靠政府的资源和特殊政策。它们分布太广,前线太长,特别是在竞争领域。这些企业浪费了资源,加剧了资产错配,极大地占据了民营企业的发展空间。因此,要加快国有经济布局和结构的调整,必须着眼于近期严重产能过剩的“僵尸企业”,着眼于竞争日益激烈的商业、物流、外贸、服务业、制造业等国有企业。e除了少数企业已经变得更强、更好、更大之外,绝大多数企业应该迅速撤出。从长远来看,在竞争中能够生存和发展但不符合国有经济长期发展方向的国有企业,以及经营风险高、国有企业内部动力机制和风险承担机制不适应的地区,应该有计划、有步骤地退出。通过国有企业在竞争领域的退出,形成国有企业的发展机制,优化国有经济的布局和结构。今后,国有企业要在事关国家全局的重大战略产业、保障国民经济和社会正常安全运行的重要基础设施领域和公共服务领域发挥更大的作用。通过优化国有经济布局,可以为民营企业的发展提供更广阔的空间,使它们发挥各自的优势,相互融合,共同发展,从而为我国社会主义市场经济的形成打下坚实的基础。三是坚持政企分开、政资分开的改革方向。政企分开是国有企业成为独立市场竞争者的重要前提。一方面,国有企业已成为政府运用行政手段配置资源的工具、平台和载体,扭曲了政府、市场和企业之间的关系,对国民经济发展产生了长期的不利影响。另一方面,也导致国有企业长期依赖政府,使政府成为国有企业负债经营的最后支付者。因此,必须坚持政企分开、政资分开的方向。推动国有企业进入市场,成为独立的市场竞争者。三。风险投资是民营企业融资的重要方式。从长远来看,解决民营企业特别是中小民营企业发展资金问题的主要途径是不依靠银行贷款。这是因为中小企业规模小、资源匮乏、抗风险能力弱,银行不良贷款风险高。同时,中小企业的抵押资产较少,难以满足银行风险控制的要求。在市场化条件下,银行是市场竞争的主体。他们还需要追求利润和避免风险。它们不能长期依靠行政手段规定一定比例,要求银行向风险较大的中小民营企业发放大量贷款。在民营企业研讨会上,西晋平同志指出:“要扩大金融市场准入,拓宽民营企业融资渠道,充分发挥民营银行、小额贷款公司、风险投资、股权和债券等融资渠道的作用。”电子资本是中小企业,尤其是高新技术企业的重要融资方式,2017年,深圳市有11.2万家国家级高新技术企业,19万家不同类型和规模的中小高新技术企业。他们是中国领先的创新城市。深圳高新技术的发展与兴起与众多天使投资基金、风险投资基金、产业投资基金和私募股权基金密切相关,它们在不同发展阶段为中小企业提供多层次、多样化的金融服务,其中风险投资最为重要。角色。为了给民营科技企业的发展提供完善的金融服务体系,深圳几十年来一直鼓励和支持风险投资的发展。例如,1994年,深圳成立了中国第一家“高科技投资”,以解决中小企业的融资困难;1999年,深圳成立了规模最大的“创新投资”,专门从事风险投资和中小科技企业。深圳中小企业信用担保中心,提供担保。许多成功的民营科技企业都离不开创业投资初期的成立。在首届高新技术交易会上,腾讯创办人马化腾以66个版本、20多页的创业计划,在展厅内奔跑,首家创业投资、IDG和PCCW数字投资达220万美元,为腾讯的发展奠定了重要基础。目前,深圳拥有全国五分之一的风险投资机构,中国前20名风险投资企业中近一半是深圳企业。深圳市中小企业创业板上市公司连续11年位居全国大中城市第一。当前,我国中小民营企业,尤其是中小民营高新技术企业的发展面临着特殊的融资困难时期,也是风险投资发展商业和市场的有利时机。根据深圳的实际情况,去年的“基金募集项目”风险资本市场已经转变为今年的“项目募集基金”新格局。新模式的形成需要大量的风险投资,为中小科技企业的发展做出更大的贡献。因此,各级政府和有关部门要大力鼓励和支持风险投资基金的发展,通过风险投资基金平台,缓解中小企业融资难和融资难问题。从当前风险投资发展的实践来看,政府必须解决好基本问题:第一,处理好发展与监管的关系。要规范监管,鼓励发展,而不是以规范监管的名义,抑制风险投资的发展。近年来,我国风险投资基金的监管出现了一些问题。在国家金融风险防范的背景下,有必要对监管进行规范。但是,有关部门和地区暂停了风险投资企业资产管理、投资管理、注册变更的审计业务,对风险投资企业的发展产生了负面影响。因此,有关地区和部门应调整政策,鼓励风险投资的发展,恢复风险投资登记审计业务。在发展过程中,要通过标准化来规范和促进发展。二是减少对风险投资行业市场准入的审批。近年来,国务院在简化行政管理、分散权力等方面做了大量工作,取得了显着成就,特别是在减少行政审批、取消大量行政审批项目、完全取消非行政许可等方面,提出取消审批中间层,防止“两个政府”的出现。然而,目前,风险投资基金的设立仍需要中国证券投资基金行业协会的“备案”,而备案的审批实际上是审批。这种做法有悖于政府简化、分权、行政审批制度改革的要求,应当尽快予以纠正。张思平曾任深圳市委常委、副市长。本文是作者于2018年12月8日在第十届全球体育北京论坛上发表的、经过本人修改的讲话的汇编。(本文摘自彭梅新闻)责任编辑:陈鹤群

ru he jie jue min ying qi ye de rong zi kun nan? zi 2018 nian xia ban nian yi lai, you yu zhong zhong yuan yin, you qi shi jin rong qu gang gan hua guo cheng zhong de zheng ce pian cha, yin hang xiang xiang dang duo de min ying qi ye fa fang le huai zhang chou qu dai kuan he jin suo dai kuan, zai jia shang zheng quan shi chang de da fu du tiao zheng, chu xian le da liang de min ying shang shi. gong si mian lin zhe gu quan zhi ya qing suan de feng xian, min ying jing ji de fa zhan yu dao le qian suo wei you de kun nan, yan chong ying xiang le guo min jing ji de fa zhan. 2018 nian 11 yue 1 ri, xi jin ping zong shu ji zhu chi zhao kai min ying qi ye yan tao hui, fa biao zhong yao jiang hua, chong shen zhong yang zheng fu" jian ding bu yi di gu li he zhi chi fa zhan fei gong you zhi jing ji de zhi dao fang zhen he zheng ce", bing zhi chu" min ying qi ye he min ying qi ye jia" shi wo men zi ji de ren. zhong guo de min ying jing ji zhi neng zeng zhang er bu neng xue ruo, bu jin bu neng" zou chu qu", er qie yao zou xiang geng guang kuo de jie duan. xi jin ping tong zhi te bie zhi chu" min ying qi ye, te bie shi zhong xiao qi ye, ying you xian jie jue rong zi kun nan shen zhi rong zi kun nan de wen ti"," dui yu you gu quan zhi ya qing cang feng xian de min ying qi ye, ying you xian kao lv you guan ge fang he di fang zheng fu. xi jin ping tong zhi de jiang hua, dui si ying qi ye jia lai shuo, shi yi ge ju da de gu wu, zeng qiang le ta men de xin xin. guo wu yuan ge bu men dang wei zheng fu zhao kai le ge ji yan tao hui, bing hen kuai chu tai le you guan zheng ce he cuo shi. guo wu yuan ge bu men hai jiu jie jue min ying qi ye rong zi nan wen ti fa biao le yi xi lie yi jian, shen zhi ti chu le" 125" yin hang dai kuan bi li mu biao deng. xi jin ping tong zhi jiang hua yi ge yue duo hou, min ying qi ye rong zi nan he rong zi gui de wen ti ru he jie jue? ru he jie jue yi xie qi ye zi jin lian jin zhang shen zhi duan lie de wen ti? min ying jing ji de sheng cun he fa zhan huan jing you gai shan ma? zhe shi she hui ge jie dou shi fen guan zhu de wen ti. gen ju shen zhen de shi ji qing kuang, min ying qi ye guo qu yi ge yue de rong zi huan jing he zi jin lian de xian zhuang da zhi ke yi fen wei yi xia si zhong qing kuang: 1 shang shi gong si gu quan zhi ya qing suan de feng xian zai yi ding cheng du shang de dao le kong zhi 2018 nian shang ban nian, shen zhen 300 duo jia shang shi gong si zhong, chao guo ban shu cun zai gu quan zhi ya qing suan feng xian, bu fen shang shi gong si dan du shang shi. gong si ren juan de gu piao yi jing qing suan. gen ju zhong yang zheng fu de yao qiu he shen zhen de shi ji qing kuang, shen zhen zhu yao cai qu liang zhong fang shi huan jie shang shi gong si gu quan zhi ya feng xian. yi shi shi zheng fu tong guo guo you zi ben ping tai dui shang shi gong si zhu zi, qu dai min ying shang shi gong si de zhi ya gu, ti gao gu quan zhi ya lv, cong er huan jie gu quan zhi ya qing suan de feng xian er shi zheng fu zhi jie tong guo guo you qi ye. shou gou bu fen min ying qi ye shang shi gong si gu fen, ke yi wei min ying qi ye zhu ru zi ben, ti gao shang shi gong si sheng yu, huan jie shi chang kong huang, wen ding she hui yu qi, zeng qiang tou zi zhe xin xin, shi shang shi gong si gu jia cong kong huang pao shou hou de di dian he li hui sheng, yi ji jian qing bu fen gu quan zhi ya de feng xian. 2 da duo shu fei shang shi min ying qi ye de rong zi kun jing reng ran bu rong le guan, zui jin zhong yang zheng fu he ge bu wei fen fen fa biao le da liang zhi chi min ying qi ye rong zi de chu ban wu. yin bao jian cha wei yuan hui zhu xi guo shu qing ti chu, min ying qi ye dai kuan ying shi xian" shi er wu" mu biao. yin hang hai biao shi, ying gai zhi chi min ying qi ye de fa zhan, bing shi shi xiang guan de dai kuan zheng ce. dan shi, zai jia qiang ge ji yin hang feng xian kong zhi de qing kuang xia, shi jian zhong dui min ying qi ye zeng dai kuan de zheng ce he yao qiu mei you de dao luo shi, cun zai zhe" lei sheng lei ming, yu dian xiao" de xian xiang. jin nian shang ban nian yi lai, min ying qi ye huan dai zhong duan dai kuan chou qu dai kuan jin suo deng wen ti yi zhi mei you de dao tuo shan jie jue. yi xie yin hang reng zai tui chi xiang si ying qi ye ti gong ji shu he zhuan ye fang mian di dai kuan. sui ran yi xie da xing qi ye yi jing yu yin hang qian ding le suo wei de" kuang jia xie yi" he xin yong e du, dan kuang jia xie yi de shi shi yu yin hang dai kuan de zhi fu zhi jian reng ran cun zai cha ju. 3 zhong xiao min ying qi ye reng chu yu kun jing. you yu zhong xiao qi ye shu liang zhong duo, qi jing ying bu rong yi, er qie mei you tu di fang di chan deng zhi ya, yin hang dai kuan de feng xian jiao gao. yi ge duo yue lai, zhong yang zheng fu jie jue min ying qi ye rong zi nan he rong zi ang gui de yao qiu yi zhi mei you kuo da dao yin hang ti xi zhong de zhong xiao xing min ying qi ye de dai kuan ye wu. yin ci, da liang de zhong xiao min ying qi ye reng ran chu yu zi jin duan que de tong yang jing di, qi zhong yi xie you yu zi jin lian de duan lie er wu fa zhi cheng. si min jian rong zi qu dao shang wei hui fu. chang qi yi lai, yin hang deng jin rong ji gou dui min jian qi ye, te bie shi zhong xiao qi ye de dai kuan geng jia jin shen, dao zhi da liang min ying qi ye bu de bu tong guo xiao e xin dai gong si he qi ta min jian rong zi qu dao rong zi. ying gai shuo, min jian rong zi shi zhong xiao min ying qi ye de zhu yao zi jin lai yuan, dui cu jin jing ji fa zhan you hua zi jin pei zhi ju you ji ji zuo yong. dan jin nian yi lai, you yu jing ji di mi he zi jin duan que, da liang P2P gong si bao fa shi zeng zhang, xiao e dai kuan gong si de feng xian jia da, shi de min jian rong zi qu dao shang wei hui fu. shi shi shang, shen zhen de xiao e dai kuan gong si da duo chu yu ting ye he ban ting ye zhuang tai. zong shang suo shu, xi jin ping tong zhi chang da yi ge duo yue de zhong yao jiang hua, sui ran yi xie min ying shang shi gong si de gu quan zhi ya qing suan feng xian yi chu bu de dao kong zhi, dan zheng ge min ying jing ji rong zi kun nan rong zi ang gui, shen zhi wu li rong zi, shang wei wan quan jie jue. jin nian, da liang min ying qi ye mian lin zhe zi jin lian jin suo shen zhi duan lie de ju mian. yuan yin you hen duo. sui ran you yu guo du kuo zhang huo zi wo guan li bu shan, shao shu min ying qi ye chu xian huai zhang dai zhang dai zhang, dan da duo shu min ying qi ye reng neng zheng chang jing ying. qi ye reng ran ying li huo wei li. zhei xie qi ye de cai wu kun nan bu shi you yu yin hang de que xi. gang gan lv de pian cha, huo zhe you yu wai bu yin su ru gu shi de da gui mo tiao zheng zao cheng de. yin ci, dang qian zheng chang de min ying qi ye ying gei yu jin ji cuo shi bi yao de cai zheng yuan zhu, jin kuai hui fu zheng chang dai kuan, tuo shan jie jue shang ban nian yin hang dai kuan beng kui dai kuan che hui dai kuan ya li deng yi liu wen ti. zhe reng ran shi dang qian min ying jing ji nai zhi zheng ge guo min jing ji fa zhan di dang wu zhi ji. zai yuan dan he chun jie qi jian, qi ye zi jin de liu dong xing tong chang shi zui jin zhang de shi qi. wo men xi wang jin rong ti xi he di fang zheng fu ji yu gao du zhong shi. zuo wei dang qian te shu jie duan he te shu xing shi xia de yi xiang te shu cuo shi, wo men yao jin kuai jie jue min ying qi ye de cai wu kun nan, fang zhi xin chun qi jian zhong xiao min ying qi ye dao bi po chan. wei jie jue min ying qi ye zi jin duan que wen ti, ge bu men bu jin yao ju ban yan tao hui gao han kou hao fa bu wen jian, hai yao nu li shi shi jie jue min ying qi ye rong zi nan he rong zi nan de zheng ce. 2. shen hua guo you qi ye gai ge shi jie jue min ying qi ye rong zi nan de gen ben chu lu. wei shen me gao fu zhai lv de guo you qi ye, shen zhi" jiang shi qi ye" zai gang gan hua jie tuo de guo cheng zhong, dou wei neng tu po dai kuan fa fang dai kuan he xin wen dai kuan? zui chu, zhong yang zheng fu zhuan men yao qiu jiang di guo you qi ye de zhai wu lv. wei shen me ta men zhong de da duo shu luo ru le si ying qi ye? yuan yin you hen duo. li ru, liu he tong zhi shuo," yi xie ji gou de yi xie ye wu ren yuan ren wei jie dai gei si ying qi ye you zheng zhi feng xian, ta men ning yuan bu zuo ye bu yuan fan zheng zhi cuo wu", hai you yin hang ti zhi deng zao cheng de bu zuo wei. dan wo ren wei, min ying qi ye rong zi nan zhe yi lao wen ti yi zhi mei you hen hao di jie jue, er qie fu fa bu wan quan shi you yu yin hang zi shen dui zhe yi wen ti de ren shi, geng bu yong shuo yi ge ye wu he ji shu wen ti, gen ben yuan yin ying gai shi ti zhi he ji zhi zao cheng de. jin nian lai, sui zhe yin hang deng jin rong ji gou de gai ge, feng xian yi shi bu duan zeng qiang, feng xian kong zhi ti xi bu duan wan shan. cong yin hang zi shen de li yi lai kan, xiang min ying qi ye dai kuan de feng xian yao da de duo. ji hu bu cun zai xiang guo you qi ye dai kuan de feng xian. zi jin ji ben shang shi an quan de. min ying qi ye dai kuan feng xian gao, guo you qi ye dai kuan feng xian di huo mei you de yuan yin? min ying qi ye shi fou que fa huo li xiao lv he xin yu? guo you qi ye shi fou you xiao you huo li xin yu liang hao? dang ran bu wan quan shi. min ying jing ji zhan guo nei sheng chan zong zhi de 60, er yin hang dui min ying qi ye de dai kuan jin zhan 30. zhe shuo ming min ying qi ye de zi ben li yong xiao lv yuan gao yu guo you qi ye. wei shen me yin hang xi tong hui fa sheng ru ci da gui mo de zi jin cuo pei? wo ren wei you san ge shen ceng ci de yuan yin: di yi, guo you qi ye bi si ying qi ye ju you wu ke bi ni de you shi. chang qi yi lai, zheng fu jiang shi shi guo you qi ye he min ying qi ye de xian xing huo yin xing cha bie hua zheng ce. guo you qi ye zai huo qu tu di kuang chan quan te xu jing ying quan zheng fu xiang mu yin hang dai kuan zi ben shi chang rong zi he shi chang zhun ru deng zi ran zi yuan fang mian chu yu you li di wei. te bie shi jin nian lai, zai jia qiang he kuo da guo you qi ye de zhi dao si xiang xia, guo you qi ye xiang shou ge ji zheng fu de you hui zheng ce he te shu fu chi, zi shen shi li bu duan jia qiang, te bie shi zai tu di cai chan deng yin hang dai kuan de di ya pin fang mian. dui min ying qi ye ju you wu ke bi ni de you shi. qi ci, guo you zi chan guan li ti zhi yi cheng wei fang fan guo you qi ye dai kuan feng xian de zhong yao ping zhang. dang guo you qi ye jing ying kun nan huo fa sheng zi ben feng xian shi, zhong yang dao di fang ge ji guo you zi chan guan li ti zhi yi cheng wei xiao hua yin hang dai kuan feng xian de zhong yao zhang ai. ge ji guo you zi chan wei tuo ji gou dai kuan feng xian gao, zi jin yun xing kun nan, shen zhi xu yao guan bi po chan qi ye, huo zhe zhi jie tou zi zeng zi, huo zhe tong guo nei bu zi jin diao du zhi du mi bu, huo zhe tong guo qi ta shang ji qi ye dui guo you zi chan nei bu zhi du jin xing chong zu. guo you qi ye ke yi sheng cun, cong er bao zheng yin hang de dai kuan feng xian, xing cheng guo you qi ye. zhi neng qian jin er bu neng tui que de ji zhi. zai ge ji guo you zi chan guan li ti zhi de zhong yao zhang ai xia, jiu yin hang zi shen li yi er yan, guo you qi ye dai kuan shi you bao zhang de. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, yin hang zen me neng bu xiang guo you qi ye dai kuan? ru he jiang di guo you qi ye de gang gan lv? di san, guo you qi ye de dao zheng fu de zui zhong ren ke, zheng fu shi ji shang yi cheng wei guo you qi ye dai kuan de zui zhong zhi fu zhe. yuan lai, wu lun shen me suo you zhi, qi ye de sheng si dou shi yi ge jing ji jie gou he chan ye jie gou de dong tai you hua he tiao zheng de guo cheng. dan shi, zuo wei guo you qi ye de tou zi zhe, zheng fu bu jin yi guo you qi ye zuo wei xing zheng shou duan jin xing zi yuan pei zhi de ping tai he zai ti, er qie dui guo you qi ye fu you ze ren. te bie shi chu yu wei hu she hui wen ding deng kao lv, yi ban bu rang guo you qi ye po chan. ren he di fang zheng fu dou bu yuan yi rang guo you qi ye zai ren qi nei dao bi po chan. yin ci, dui yu chu yu kun jing zhong de guo you qi ye, ta men bu duan di yun yong jing ji he xing zheng shou duan jin xing shu xue he qiang jiu, yi xie" jiang shi qi ye" ye yin ci er zou dao le jin tou. yi zheng fu wei bei shu ren he zui zhong fu kuan ren, yin hang dui guo you qi ye de dai kuan ji ben shang shi wu feng xian de. dang ran, ta men yuan yi xiang guo you qi ye tou ru geng duo de dai kuan zi yuan. you yu shang shu yuan yin, guo you qi ye zai huo de yin hang dai kuan yin hang zi yuan he yin hang feng xian ping gu fang mian yu min ying qi ye chu yu bu ping deng de di wei. guo you qi ye yu min ying qi ye dai kuan feng xian de cha yi, zai jing ying guan li nei bu xiao lv jing ji xiao yi deng fang mian bu neng fan ying qi ye de shi ji qing kuang. dui yu yin hang lai shuo, wei le gui bi zi shen feng xian, zhui qiu zi shen li yi, zai zheng chang de dai kuan ye wu zhong, te bie shi zai jin rong ti xi qu gang gan hua he feng xian fang fan zhong, ta men zi ran hui qie duan dai kuan, xiang min ying qi ye fa fang dai kuan he ya li dai kuan, bing xiang guo you qi ye fen pei da liang de jin rong zi yuan. yin ci, wei liao jie jue min ying qi ye rong zi nan he cheng ben gao de wen ti, cong jie jue dang qian min ying qi ye te shu kun jing de jiao du chu fa, yin hang you bi yao gen ju zhong yang zheng fu de yao qiu, cai qu te shu de fang shi bang zhu min ying qi ye ke fu kun nan. qi ye. dan shi, cong chang yuan lai kan, cong zhi li de jiao du kan, yao zhen zheng jie jue min ying qi ye de rong zi wen ti, zhi chi min ying qi ye de fa zhan he zhuang da, bi xu jin yi bu shen hua guo you qi ye gai ge, zhen zheng cong chang yuan shang jie jue min ying jing ji fa zhan zhong de rong zi wen ti. zhi du zhi du ji zhi san fang mian. shou xian, yao que bao guo you qi ye he min ying qi ye zai shi chang shang de ping deng jing zheng di wei, jian li gong ping de jing zheng shi chang huan jing. gai ge kai fang yi lai, dang he guo jia zai fa zhan min ying qi ye de li lun he zheng ce shang dou qu de le hen da de jin bu. si ying jing ji cong guo qu dui she hui zhu yi jing ji de bu chong fa zhan dao xian zai, yi jing cheng wei she hui zhu yi shi chang jing ji de zhong yao zu cheng bu fen, shi she hui zhu yi jing ji fa zhan de zhong yao ji chu. jin nian lai, zhong yang zheng fu chu tai le yi xie zhi chi min ying qi ye fa zhan de yi jian he fa gui, dan zai shi shi guo cheng zhong mei you de dao chong fen shi shi, gong ping jing zheng de shi chang huan jing ye mei you wan quan jian li. yin ci, yao jin yi bu da po" guo you" yu" si you" de suo you zhi cha ju, jian ding bu yi di fa zhan si ying jing ji, ji fa qi jing ji huo li he chuang zao li, zhen zheng shi xian sheng chan yao su zai ge lei suo you zhi jing ji zhong yi fa ping deng shi yong, gong ping can yu shi chang jing zheng. tong shi, shou dao fa lv de ping deng bao hu, shi si ying jing ji neng gou cheng wei guo min jing ji jian kang chi xu fa zhan de liang hao shi chang jing ji ti zhi. liang hao yun xing de ji chu. di er, jia kuai guo you jing ji de bu ju he jie gou tiao zheng, xing cheng guo you qi ye jin tui wei sheng de dong tai tiao zheng ji zhi. jin nian lai, guo you qi ye yi kao zheng fu de zi yuan he te shu zheng ce. ta men fen bu tai guang, qian xian tai zhang, te bie shi zai jing zheng ling yu. zhei xie qi ye lang fei le zi yuan, jia ju le zi chan cuo pei, ji da di zhan ju le min ying qi ye de fa zhan kong jian. yin ci, yao jia kuai guo you jing ji bu ju he jie gou de tiao zheng, bi xu zhuo yan yu jin qi yan zhong chan neng guo sheng de" jiang shi qi ye", zhuo yan yu jing zheng ri yi ji lie de shang ye wu liu wai mao fu wu ye zhi zao ye deng guo you qi ye. e chu le shao shu qi ye yi jing bian de geng qiang geng hao geng da zhi wai, jue da duo shu qi ye ying gai xun su che chu. cong chang yuan lai kan, zai jing zheng zhong neng gou sheng cun he fa zhan dan bu fu he guo you jing ji chang qi fa zhan fang xiang de guo you qi ye, yi ji jing ying feng xian gao guo you qi ye nei bu dong li ji zhi he feng xian cheng dan ji zhi bu shi ying de di qu, ying gai you ji hua you bu zhou di tui chu. tong guo guo you qi ye zai jing zheng ling yu de tui chu, xing cheng guo you qi ye de fa zhan ji zhi, you hua guo you jing ji de bu ju he jie gou. jin hou, guo you qi ye yao zai shi guan guo jia quan ju de zhong da zhan lue chan ye bao zhang guo min jing ji he she hui zheng chang an quan yun xing de zhong yao ji chu she shi ling yu he gong gong fu wu ling yu fa hui geng da de zuo yong. tong guo you hua guo you jing ji bu ju, ke yi wei min ying qi ye de fa zhan ti gong geng guang kuo de kong jian, shi ta men fa hui ge zi de you shi, xiang hu rong he, gong tong fa zhan, cong er wei wo guo she hui zhu yi shi chang jing ji de xing cheng da xia jian shi de ji chu. san shi jian chi zheng qi fen kai zheng zi fen kai de gai ge fang xiang. zheng qi fen kai shi guo you qi ye cheng wei du li shi chang jing zheng zhe de zhong yao qian ti. yi fang mian, guo you qi ye yi cheng wei zheng fu yun yong xing zheng shou duan pei zhi zi yuan de gong ju ping tai he zai ti, niu qu le zheng fu shi chang he qi ye zhi jian de guan xi, dui guo min jing ji fa zhan chan sheng le chang qi de bu li ying xiang. ling yi fang mian, ye dao zhi guo you qi ye chang qi yi lai zheng fu, shi zheng fu cheng wei guo you qi ye fu zhai jing ying de zui hou zhi fu zhe. yin ci, bi xu jian chi zheng qi fen kai zheng zi fen kai de fang xiang. tui dong guo you qi ye jin ru shi chang, cheng wei du li de shi chang jing zheng zhe. san. feng xian tou zi shi min ying qi ye rong zi de zhong yao fang shi. cong chang yuan lai kan, jie jue min ying qi ye te bie shi zhong xiao min ying qi ye fa zhan zi jin wen ti de zhu yao tu jing shi bu yi kao yin hang dai kuan. zhe shi yin wei zhong xiao qi ye gui mo xiao zi yuan kui fa kang feng xian neng li ruo, yin hang bu liang dai kuan feng xian gao. tong shi, zhong xiao qi ye de di ya zi chan jiao shao, nan yi man zu yin hang feng xian kong zhi de yao qiu. zai shi chang hua tiao jian xia, yin hang shi shi chang jing zheng de zhu ti. ta men hai xu yao zhui qiu li run he bi mian feng xian. ta men bu neng chang qi yi kao xing zheng shou duan gui ding yi ding bi li, yao qiu yin hang xiang feng xian jiao da de zhong xiao min ying qi ye fa fang da liang dai kuan. zai min ying qi ye yan tao hui shang, xi jin ping tong zhi zhi chu:" yao kuo da jin rong shi chang zhun ru, tuo kuan min ying qi ye rong zi qu dao, chong fen fa hui min ying yin hang xiao e dai kuan gong si feng xian tou zi gu quan he zhai quan deng rong zi qu dao de zuo yong." dian zi zi ben shi zhong xiao qi ye, you qi shi gao xin ji shu qi ye de zhong yao rong zi fang shi, 2017 nian, shen zhen shi you 11. 2 wan jia guo jia ji gao xin ji shu qi ye, 19 wan jia bu tong lei xing he gui mo de zhong xiao gao xin ji shu qi ye. ta men shi zhong guo ling xian de chuang xin cheng shi. shen zhen gao xin ji shu de fa zhan yu xing qi yu zhong duo tian shi tou zi ji jin feng xian tou zi ji jin chan ye tou zi ji jin he si mu gu quan ji jin mi qie xiang guan, ta men zai bu tong fa zhan jie duan wei zhong xiao qi ye ti gong duo ceng ci duo yang hua de jin rong fu wu, qi zhong feng xian tou zi zui wei zhong yao. jue se. wei le gei min ying ke ji qi ye de fa zhan ti gong wan shan de jin rong fu wu ti xi, shen zhen ji shi nian lai yi zhi gu li he zhi chi feng xian tou zi de fa zhan. li ru, 1994 nian, shen zhen cheng li le zhong guo di yi jia" gao ke ji tou zi", yi jie jue zhong xiao qi ye de rong zi kun nan 1999 nian, shen zhen cheng li le gui mo zui da de" chuang xin tou zi", zhuan men cong shi feng xian tou zi he zhong xiao ke ji qi ye. shen zhen zhong xiao qi ye xin yong dan bao zhong xin, ti gong dan bao. xu duo cheng gong de min ying ke ji qi ye dou li bu kai chuang ye tou zi chu qi de cheng li. zai shou jie gao xin ji shu jiao yi hui shang, teng xun chuang ban ren ma hua teng yi 66 ge ban ben 20 duo ye de chuang ye ji hua, zai zhan ting nei ben pao, shou jia chuang ye tou zi IDG he PCCW shu zi tou zi da 220 wan mei yuan, wei teng xun de fa zhan dian ding le zhong yao ji chu. mu qian, shen zhen yong you quan guo wu fen zhi yi de feng xian tou zi ji gou, zhong guo qian 20 ming feng xian tou zi qi ye zhong jin yi ban shi shen zhen qi ye. shen zhen shi zhong xiao qi ye chuang ye ban shang shi gong si lian xu 11 nian wei ju quan guo da zhong cheng shi di yi. dang qian, wo guo zhong xiao min ying qi ye, you qi shi zhong xiao min ying gao xin ji shu qi ye de fa zhan mian lin zhe te shu de rong zi kun nan shi qi, ye shi feng xian tou zi fa zhan shang ye he shi chang de you li shi ji. gen ju shen zhen de shi ji qing kuang, qu nian de" ji jin mu ji xiang mu" feng xian zi ben shi chang yi jing zhuan bian wei jin nian de" xiang mu mu ji ji jin" xin ge ju. xin mo shi de xing cheng xu yao da liang de feng xian tou zi, wei zhong xiao ke ji qi ye de fa zhan zuo chu geng da de gong xian. yin ci, ge ji zheng fu he you guan bu men yao da li gu li he zhi chi feng xian tou zi ji jin de fa zhan, tong guo feng xian tou zi ji jin ping tai, huan jie zhong xiao qi ye rong zi nan he rong zi nan wen ti. cong dang qian feng xian tou zi fa zhan de shi jian lai kan, zheng fu bi xu jie jue hao ji ben wen ti: di yi, chu li hao fa zhan yu jian guan de guan xi. yao gui fan jian guan, gu li fa zhan, er bu shi yi gui fan jian guan de ming yi, yi zhi feng xian tou zi de fa zhan. jin nian lai, wo guo feng xian tou zi ji jin de jian guan chu xian le yi xie wen ti. zai guo jia jin rong feng xian fang fan de bei jing xia, you bi yao dui jian guan jin hang gui fan. dan shi, you guan bu men he di qu zan ting le feng xian tou zi qi ye zi chan guan li tou zi guan li zhu ce bian geng de shen ji ye wu, dui feng xian tou zi qi ye de fa zhan chan sheng le fu mian ying xiang. yin ci, you guan di qu he bu men ying tiao zheng zheng ce, gu li feng xian tou zi de fa zhan, hui fu feng xian tou zi deng ji shen ji ye wu. zai fa zhan guo cheng zhong, yao tong guo biao zhun hua lai gui fan he cu jin fa zhan. er shi jian shao dui feng xian tou zi hang ye shi chang zhun ru de shen pi. jin nian lai, guo wu yuan zai jian hua xing zheng guan li fen san quan li deng fang mian zuo le da liang gong zuo, qu de le xian zhu cheng jiu, te bie shi zai jian shao xing zheng shen pi qu xiao da liang xing zheng shen pi xiang mu wan quan qu xiao fei xing zheng xu ke deng fang mian, ti chu qu xiao shen pi zhong jian ceng, fang zhi" liang ge zheng fu" de chu xian. ran er, mu qian, feng xian tou zi ji jin de she li reng xu yao zhong guo zheng quan tou zi ji jin hang ye xie hui de" bei an", er bei an de shen pi shi ji shang shi shen pi. zhe zhong zuo fa you bei yu zheng fu jian hua fen quan xing zheng shen pi zhi du gai ge de yao qiu, ying dang jin kuai yu yi jiu zheng. zhang si ping ceng ren shen zhen shi wei chang wei fu shi zhang. ben wen shi zuo zhe yu 2018 nian 12 yue 8 ri zai di shi jie quan qiu ti yu bei jing lun tan shang fa biao de jing guo ben ren xiu gai de jiang hua de hui bian. ben wen zhai zi peng mei xin wen ze ren bian ji: chen he qun

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